was an Egyptian, "socialist, historic, feminist" prolific writer and thinker, activist, physician, and psychiatrist. Saadawi helped publish a feminist magazine in 1981 called Confrontation. While in prison she formed the Arab Women's Solidarity Association. This was the first legal and independent feminist group in Egypt. A book that sheds light on various aggressions perpetrated against women’s bodies, including female circumcision, Women and Sex is considered a foundational text of the second-wave feminist movement.